Es ist so klar dass wir es nicht sehen: bei zwischenmenschliche Kommunikation spielt Wiederholung die erste Geige. Sie erlaubt dem alles-wahrnehmenden Hirn das wichtige, das hervorstehende, das saliente zu merken und es von dem Hintergrund des verwirendes Chaos der Welt herauszuheben. Lärm -das-keine-Information-tragende, nur-einmal-empfundene - lässt sich mit Lärm annullieren. Was in Gehirn die Netzwerke baut, was in Gedächtnis bleibt, ist was wiederholt wurde und wiederholt wird. Wiederholung kann nützlich sein: zum guten wie zum schlechten.
Sicher ist das wiederholende Verhalten bei den Tieren sehr häufig zu beobachten. Die Bienen besuchen immer wieder die Garten wo Nektar im Überfluss ist, die Kühe kehren zur gleichen Brunnen zurück und die Affen führen immer diesselbe Handbewegung aus, die ihnen ermöglicht einen harten Nuss zu knacken. Und am bis-jetzt-bekannten-Ende der ganzen Kette des Entstehens die wir seit Darwin "Evolution" nennen steht der Mensch. Und mit ihm und seine Kultur bekommt die Wiederholung eine neue Rolle.
Lassen wir aber die Metaphysik zur Seite und fokussieren uns an das, was zu hören, sehen und berühren ist. Und da ist uns etwas klar: wo Wiederholung stattfindet, überall dort wo sich das Rad der Zeit dreht, dort entstehen Wellen, dort entstehen Rhythmen. Und dort wo Rhythmen zu betrachten sind - egal ob es um Wechsel der Jahreszeiten oder ein- und aus- Atmen geht - dort spricht man oft vom Leben. Etwas lebendiges das dem Gesetz der Wiederholung nicht untergeordnet ist: was für contradictio in adiecto!
Wir beginnen den Diskurs über das Thema "Wiederholung" mit dieselbe Referenz, mit deren Milan Kundera seine "Unerträgliche Leichtigkeit des Seines" beginnt. Das heißt, mit der Referenz zur nietzscheanischen Begriff des "ewiges Wiederkunft des Gleichen". "
»Alles wird sich irgendwann so wiederholen, wie man es schon einmal erlebt hat, und auch diese Wiederholung wird sich unendlich wiederholen.« so lautet die allererste Satz Kunderas Meisterwerk.
firstname.lastname@example.org created_by of hello world!
email@example.com created_by of CyberPlant 0
firstname.lastname@example.org created_by of Schale
Skywriter + raspberry Pi zero + 3W shaker + physical setup by Kohei Kimura
email@example.com created_by of Fortune teller
In Turkey, there is a widespread habit of fortune-telling and extensive use of astrology. My work originated from the desire of destabilizing these beliefs and habits. I have created a patch that is able to generate speculative planets on its own. ‘Fortune Teller’ implements the planetary motion of astronomical bodies, including that of asteroids, comets, planets and stars. When physical bodies attract each other, relationships are instantly conveyed through the yellow lines that represent gravitational forces between planets. The strokes vary relative to planetary mass. Depending on the way the planets interact, lines may be frozen with mouse X. The screen will be filled with lines as soon as the mouse is pressed, if you keep mouse pressed, you may even read your horoscope or get a tip about your future.
firstname.lastname@example.org created_by of Fortune teller
In Turkey, there is a widespread habit of fortune-telling and extensive use of astrology. My work originated from the desire of destabilizing these beliefs and habits. I have created a patch that is able to generate speculative planets on its own. ‘Fortune Teller’ implements the planetary motion of astronomical bodies, including that of asteroids, comets, planets and stars. When physical bodies attract each other, relationships are instantly conveyed through the yellow lines that represent gravitational forces between planets. The strokes vary relative to planetary mass. Depending on the way the planets interact, lines may be frozen with mouse X. The screen will be filled with lines as soon as the mouse is pressed. This project is still under development.
First functional cardboard-embedded artefact combining touchless gesture-based recognition (Seeed Grove Gesture Recognition Sensor PAJ7620U2）with an e-ink controlled by IT8591 board and some ANSI C coded for the purpose of diagnostics of difficulties in acquisition of learning and writing (Leserechtschreibschwierigkeiten - LRS).
Diagnostics focuses on so-called "Rapid Automatized Naming" which is considered to be one among the most important LRS-predictors.
Visual content ("animal pictures") scanned from reedition of Lumen Picturae et Delineationis (Amsterdam, 1660, BE310).
Instead of a signature, this artefact contains a four-leaf clover (harvested in July) attached by duct-tape above the e-ink screen. Bottom of the cardboard shell is photovoltaic, making it possible to transform PappeFibel 0 or one of its derivatives into an energy-autarch ("eutark"; Hromada, 2019, AE49) digital education artefact.
TASK: Identify mismatch between visual and textual modality.
INSTRUCTION OF USE: You interact with the device by moving Your hand in front of the Gesture Recognition Sensor (to the right from e-ink screen). Movement along vertical axis (up/down) maps to boolean (true/false, JA/NEIN) answers. Movement along horizontal axis (left/right) is used to browse the content. Rotation is used to switch between "learning" and "testing" mode.
CAVEAT: When changing modes of operation, new data has to be loaded into the buffer of the e-ink controller. This takes few seconds. Be patient. Breathe.
email@example.com created_by of Avatar 0
Head-shaped tridecahedral (13-plane) wooden shell crafted by Chris Schmidts and filled with Raspberry pi 3A+, Seeed Respeaker (4mic circular array, ac108 converter; APA102 12-LED RGB pixel ring) enriched with UltraSonic Ranger System sending UDP packets to "active wall" installation by architecture student Akif Sari.
6-inch e-ink displays page 4. of McGuffey's Ecclectic Primer, a well-known Fibel of Victorian Era. Display is currently powered off and as such has zero carbon dioxide trace (hallo Gretha!) while still teaching Alphabet. To see more interactive e-ink setup please check the artefact CardboardFibel0.
For children younger than 18 months, use of screen media other than video-chatting should be discouraged.
Parents of children 18 to 24 months of age who want to introduce digital media should choose high-quality programming/apps and use them together with children, because this is how toddlers learn best. Letting children use media by themselves should be avoided.
For children older than 2 years, media limits are very appropriate. Limit screen use to no more than 1 hour or less per day of high-quality programming. Co-view or co-play with your children, and find other activities for to do together that are healthy for the body and mind (e.g., reading, teaching, talking, and playing together).
All children and teens need adequate sleep (8-12 hours, depending on age), physical activity (1 hour), and time away from media. Designate media-free times together (e.g., family dinner) and media-free zones (e.g., bedrooms). Children should not sleep with devices in their bedrooms, including TVs, computers, and smartphones.
Abstract. Non-moderate smartphone usage may induce diverse pathological states and behaviors which may potentially result in an array of syndromes and illnesses. Digital devices built for education rather than consumption and entertainment should not neglect intricacies of human physiology, ergonomy and cognition. For this reason, we present first four properties of an idealized ”digital primer” artefact which could maximize the human and cultural potential of a normal elementary school pupil by means of holistic, semi-supervised interaction. Properties addressed and defined in this article are: ”speech-based”, ”narrative”, ”circa-temporal” and ”habit-disrupting”.
Key-words. digital primer, speech-based, circa-temporal, narrative, habit-disrupting, smartphone epidemic
Blackmore (2000) defines "Meme is a replicator which replicates from brain to brain by means of imitation" . These replicators are somehow represented in the host brain as some kind of «cognitive structure» and if ever externalised by the host organism – no matter whether in form a word, song, behavioral schema or an artefact – they can get copied into other host organism endowed with the device to integrate such structures.
Internalists define memes as informatic structures located in the brain.
Externalities define memes in terms of their observable expressions (cultural artifacts, behaviors etc.)
What is common to both camps is that they both attribute memes their own "urge to reproduce themselves", which is independent (and sometimes even contradictory) to needs of the "host" organism.
examples: language, rituals, songs, taking selfies, internet memes, chain letters, fashions and styles, WC prose, earworms, what else ?
firstname.lastname@example.org created_by of The meme
The term meme was coined in Richard Dawkins' 1976 book The Selfish Gene, but Dawkins later distanced himself from the resulting field of study. Analogous to a gene, the meme was conceived as a "unit of culture" (an idea, belief, pattern of behaviour, etc.) which is "hosted" in the minds of one or more individuals, and which can reproduce itself in the sense of jumping from the mind of one person to the mind of another. Thus what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another to adopt a belief is seen as an idea-replicator reproducing itself in a new host.
Prof. Dr. Daniel D. Hromada (ECDF Juniorprofessor for Digital Education) and Nikoloz Kapanadze (Kunst und Medien; Tutor)
We present multiple digital artefacts which emerged first stage of construction of a digital Primer. These include: touchscreen&HTML5-based prototype; e-ink screen (recently broken) with touchless sensing embedded in an upcycled old book; and OID-enriched paper page from the Primer "Wir Kinder vom Zirkus Palope".
Aside this, we'll present some additional digital artefacts exploiting the modularity and extensibility of Raspberry Pi technology: Make Your Own Instrument kits, touchless PONG-game, speak2listen headphones and a touch-the-plant botanics education setup.
Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. Some psychologists restrict the term confirmation bias to selective collection of evidence that supports what one already believes while ignoring or rejecting evidence that supports a different conclusion. Others apply the term more broadly to the tendency to preserve one's existing beliefs when searching for evidence, interpreting it, or recalling it from memory.
Can You please present some cases of confirmation bias from everyday life ?
Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured, outside the lab. Participants who played violent games took longer to help the injured victim, rated the fight as less serious, and were less likely to ‘‘hear’’ the fight in comparison to participants who played nonviolent games. In Study 2, violent- and nonviolentmovie attendees witnessed a young woman with an injured ankle struggle to pick up her crutches outside the theater either before or after the movie. Participants who had just watched a violent movie took longer to help than participants in the other three conditions. The findings from both studies suggest that violent media make people numb to the pain and suffering of others.
ABSTRACT For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender. Furthermore, FoMO (cross-sectionally) mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Theoretical implications are considered with regard to developing problematic smartphone use.
Nomophobia is considered a modern age phobia introduced to our lives as a byproduct of the interaction between people and mobile information and communication technologies, especially smartphones. This study sought to contribute to the nomophobia research literature by identifying and describing the dimensions of nomophobia and developing a questionnaire to measure nomophobia. Consequently, this study adopted a two-phase, exploratory sequential mixed methods design. The first phase was a qualitative exploration of nomophobia through semi-structured interviews conducted with nine undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university in the U.S. As a result of the first phase, four dimensions of nomophobia were identified: not being able to communicate, losing connectedness, not being able to access information and giving up convenience. The qualitative findings from this initial exploration were then developed into a 20-item nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q). In the second phase, the NMP-Q was validated with a sample of 301 undergraduate students. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure for the NMP-Q, corresponding to the dimensions of nomophobia. The NMP-Q was shown to produce valid and reliable scores; and thus, can be used to assess the severity of nomophobia
Abstract In two nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents in grades 8 through 12 (N = 506,820) and national statistics on suicide deaths for those ages 13 to 18, adolescents’ depressive symptoms, suicide-related outcomes, and suicide rates increased between 2010 and 2015, especially among females. Adolescents who spent more time on new media (including social media and electronic devices such as smartphones) were more likely to report mental health issues, and adolescents who spent more time on nonscreen activities (in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, print media, and attending religious services) were less likely. Since 2010, iGen adolescents have spent more time on new media screen activities and less time on nonscreen activities, which may account for the increases in depression and suicide. In contrast, cyclical economic factors such as unemployment and the Dow Jones Index were not linked to depressive symptoms or suicide rates when matched by year.
ABSTRACT Our smartphones enable—and encourage—constant connection to information, entertainment, and each other. They put the world at our fingertips, and rarely leave our sides. Although these devices have immense potential to improve welfare, their persistent presence may come at a cognitive cost. In this research, we test the “brain drain” hypothesis that the mere presence of one’s own smartphone may occupy limited-capacity cognitive resources, thereby leaving fewer resources available for other tasks and undercutting cognitive performance. Results from two experiments indicate that even when people are successful at maintaining sustained attention—as when avoiding the temptation to check their phones—the mere presence of these devices reduces available cognitive capacity. Moreover, these cognitive costs are highest for those highest in smartphone dependence. We conclude by discussing the practical implications of this smartphone-induced brain drain for consumer decision-making and consumer welfare.
We investigated the effects of divided attention during walking. Individuals were classified based on whether they were walking while talking on a cell phone, listening to an MP3 player, walking without any electronics or walking in a pair. In the first study, we found that cell phone users walked more slowly, changed directions more frequently, and were less likely to acknowledge other people than individuals in the other conditions. In the second study, we found that cell phone users were less likely to notice an unusual activity along their walking route (a unicycling clown). Cell phone usage may cause inattentional blindness even during a simple activity that should require few cognitive resources.
A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment. Individuals create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive. Cognitive biases may lead to more effective actions in a given context. Furthermore, allowing cognitive biases enable faster decisions which can be desirable when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy, as illustrated in heuristics.
serious scientific article published in February 2009 edition of a peer-reviewed journal Geriatric Psychiatry
compares statistically significantly different groups of Net Naive (N=12) and Net Savvy (N=12) seniors
Main result :: "The most striking finding was in the direct comparison of the Internet versus text reading tasks for the Net Naive and Net Savvy groups, which found that the Net Savvy group had more than a twofold greater spatial extent of activation than did the Net Naive group during the Internet task".
Positive opinion: "present results are encouraging that emerging computerized technologies designed to improve cognitive abilities and brain function may have physiologic effects and potential benefits for middle-aged and older adults" (p.125)
Negative opinion: "constant use of such technologies have the potential for negative brain and behavioral effects, including impaired attention and addiction"
published in a October/November 2008 issue of popularisation review Scientific American Mind
mentions the fMRI study (c.f. next slide), but only in the state where 3 Net Naive volunteers were recruited (c.f. page 45)
quite techno-pessimist terminology: "continuous partial attention", "heightened state of stress", "a sense of constant crisis", "digital fog" (p. 47), "techno-brain burn-out is threating to become an epidemic", "impair cognition, lead to depression ..." (p.48)
little bit of techno-optimism at the end: "technological experiences sharpen some cognitive abilities" (p. 49)
summing up: "all of us... will master new technologies and take advantage of their efficiencies, but we need to maintain our people skills and our humanity"
Writing is a complex cognitive process relying on intricate perceptual-sensorimotor combinations. The process and skill of writing is studied on several levels and in many disciplines, from neurophysiological research on the shaping of each letter to studies on stylistic and compositional features of authors and poets. In studies of writing and literacy overall, the role of the physically tangible writing device (pen on paper; computer mouse and keyboard; digital stylus pen and writing tablet; etc.) is rarely addressed. By and large, the (relatively young) field of writing research is dominated by cognitive approaches predominantly focusing on the visual component of the writing process, hence maintaining a separation between (visual) perception and motor action (e.g., haptics1). However, recent theoretical currents in psychology, phenomenology & philosophy of mind, and neuroscience – commonly referred to as “embodied cognition” – indicate that perception and motor action are closely connected and, indeed, reciprocally dependent.
Introduction The aim of this text is threefold: Firstly, to prove to the Teacher that the author of this article (i.e. Student) have sufficiently internalized all the facts presented during UE Neuroimagery. Secondly, Student aims to introduce the notion of «invasivity» as something which should be considered wery seriously by someone who seeks an «ideal method» of conducting his future (neuro)scientific experiments towards success. But the ultimate aim si to show that certain «philosophical schools» who point out to «invasivity-related aspects» of current neuro-scientific research are not doing so from the position of moralizing savants locked in their ivory towers, but they do so because of concrete and highly-pragmatic reasons related to purest expressions of highest scientific practice. Principal thesis of this text states that « invasivity » and « reversibility » aspects of a chosen experimental method should determine experimentator's choice at least as significantly as other aspects like spatial/temporal resolution characteristics, signal/noise ratio or economical feasibility. First part of the text is dedicated to highly invasive techniques tissue extraction and analysis by means of electron, multiphoton or confocal microscopes. Post mortem autopsy and chirurgical interventions like vivisesction or lobotomy will be mentioned when discussing this group. Common demoninator of these approaches is that their condition sine qua non of their realisation is nonreversible and fatal degradation of one vital functions of the organism under study or...death. Second part of the text is dedicated to somewhat more reversible, nonetheless still very brutal «in vivo» techniques like that of calcic imaging, optic imaging or electrode implantation. Because it is evident that such approaches can inflict severe injuries and suffering of the organisms under study, they will be labeled as «partially reversible quasi in vivo techniques». Contrary to common categorisation of these days, even techniques like PET (positron emission tomography) or X-ray imaging will be included into this middle group of partially invasive techniques. This is due to their high-energy kinship with radioactivity which can without any doubt induce mutations resulting in the disequilibrium of a living system which is commonly known as «loss of health». The loss of this precious equilibrium is the reason why we'll include all the luminescence/fluorescence marker techniques into this category as well. The third part of the text aims to bring hope. It will be fully devoted to techniques which can be considered as fully reversible: focus will be definitely on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Electroencephalography (EEG) while other non-invasive techniques (NIRS, echography or TCD) will be excluded from the list due to lack of Student's personal experience with these techniques. The small part of this final part will be dedicated to «what if?» speculation proposing to use these pure and elegant techniques not only for imaging, but as well as a tool of healing practice. These three parts can be considered as a core of Student's homework demanding him to «highlight the advantages and limits of these techniques depending from the scientific question You'll pose». The question posed by student is this: «According to what criteriae could we possibly quantify invasivity of an experimental tool or method ? » This text will try to answer this question by introducing the term which we label hereby as «Information/Invasivity Quotient» (IIQ).We'll analyse this notion from more ethical perspective in Discussion section,while Appendix will summariz IIQ-based ranking of 4 presented methods.
email@example.com created_by of Experiment 0
Whenever You see a person interacting with a digital device, tell Yourself something like:
Here and now I see a human being using a smartphone. Here and now the woman in front of me is touching the screen of her smartphone...
Make sure that You do Your best to try all sentences with "here and now".
Cognitive functions, also referred to as psychological functions, as described by Carl Jung in his book Psychological Types, are particular mental processes within a person's psyche that are present regardless of common circumstance. This was a concept that served as one of the conceptual foundations for his theory on personality type. In his book, he noted four main psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition. He introduced them with having either an internally focused (introverted) or externally focused (extraverted) tendency which he called "attitudes".
But current cognitive sciences rather tend to speak about cognitive processes: these include problem solving, ...
firstname.lastname@example.org created_by of cognition (n.)
mid-15c., cognicioun, "ability to comprehend, mental act or process of knowing," from Latin cognitionem(nominative cognitio) "a getting to know, acquaintance, knowledge," noun of action from past participle stem of cognoscere "to get to know, recognize," from assimilated form of com"together" (see co-) + gnoscere "to know," from PIE root *gno- "to know." In 17c. the meaning was extended to include perception and sensation.
#initialize SD card with OS image dd bs=4M if=2019-04-08-raspbian-stretch-lite.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 conv=fsync#eject and reinsert the SD card, then:
Step 3. Enable ssh
There was a security update to the Raspbian images. Now to enable ssh by default you have to do the following:
This will write an empty file to the root of your Raspbian image. That will enable ssh on startup.
Step 4. Edit config.txt
In the root folder of the SD card, open config.txt(/Volumes/boot/config.txt) in a text editor
Append this line to the bottom of it:
Save the file
Step 5. Edit cmdline.txt
In the root folder of the SD card, open cmdline.txt(/Volumes/boot/cmdline.txt) in a text editor
After rootwait, append this text leaving only one space between rootwait and the new text (otherwise it might not be parsed correctly):
If there was any text after the new text make sure that there is only one space between that text and the new text
Save the file
On a fresh image that has never been booted, you may see extra text after rootwait. But if you boot the pi from the disk at least once, that extra text may go away. That is why you must put the new text directly after rootwait - so it doesn't get accidentally deleted.
Step 6. Edit etc/network/interfaces
Put something like
iface usb0 inet static
into /etc/network/interfaces of SD card's root partition.
Step 7. Boot the Pi Zero
Put the SD card into the Pi Zero
Plug a Micro-USB cable into the data/peripherals port (the one closest to the center of the board -- see picture above)
You do NOT need to plug in external power -- it will get it from your computer
Plug the other end into a USB port on your computer
Give the Pi Zero plenty of time to bootup (can take as much as 90 seconds -- or more
email@example.com created_by of Groups
Group 1 - Aaron, Philip Group 2 - Frederico, Hannes Group 3 - Astrid, Maja, Kohei Group 4 - Adam, Patrick Group 5 - Ozcan, Akif, Anna-Luisa
firstname.lastname@example.org created_by of Motor cortex
email@example.com created_by of Sensory cortex
firstname.lastname@example.org created_by of Brain atlas
email@example.com created_by of Brain
Human brain is a physical (i.e. four-dimensional) object of organic origin which consumes biochemical energy in order to process and/or store information in a non-local, highly parallel, and in certain extent also plastic, equipotent and holographic fashion robust to both endogenous and exogenous perturbations.
Is Google Making Us Stupid? is a 2008 article written by technologist Nicholas Carr for The Atlantic, and later expanded on in a published edition by W. W. Norton. The book investigates the cognitive effects of technological advancements that relegate certain cognitive activities — namely, knowledge-searching — to external computational devices. The book received mainstream recognition for interrogating the assumptions people make about technological change and advocating for a component of personal accountability in our relationships to devices.
Carr begins the essay by saying that his recent problems with concentrating on reading lengthy texts, including the books and articles that he used to read effortlessly, stem from spending too much time on the Internet. He suggests that constantly using the Internet might reduce one’s ability to concentrate and reflect on content. He introduces a few anecdotes taken from bloggers who write about the transformation in their reading and writing habits over time. In addition, he analyzes a 2008 study by University College London about new “types” of reading that will emerge and become predominant in the information age. He particularly refers to the work of Maryanne Wolf, a reading behavior scholar, which includes theories about the role of technology and media in learning how to write new languages. Carr argues that while speech is an innate ability that stems directly from brain structure, reading is conscious and taught. He acknowledges that this theory has a paucity of evidence so far, but refers to such works as Wolf’s Proust and the Squid, which discusses how the brain’s neurons adapt to a creature’s environmental demands to become literate in new problem areas. The Internet, in his opinion, is just another kind of environment that we will uniquely adapt to.
Carr discusses how concentration might be impaired by Internet usage. He references the historical example of Nietzsche, who used a typewriter, which was new during his time in the 1880s. Allegedly, Nietzsche’s writing style changed after the advent of the typewriter. Carr categorizes this example as demonstrative of neuroplasticity, a scientific theory that states neural circuits are contingent and in flux. He invokes the idea of sociologist Daniel Bell that technologies extend human cognition, arguing that humans unconsciously conform to the very qualities, or kinds of patterns, involved in these devices’ functions. He uses the clock as an example of a device that has both improved and regulated human perception and behavior.
Carr argues that the Internet is changing behavior at unprecedented levels because it is one of the most pervasive and life-altering technologies in human history. He suggests that the Internet engenders cognitive distractions in the form of ads and popups. These concentration-altering events are only worsened by online media as they adapt their strategies and visual forms to those of Internet platforms to seem more legitimate and trick the viewer into processing them.
Carr also posits that people’s ability to concentrate might decrease as new algorithms free us from knowledge work; that is, the process of manipulating and synthesizing abstract information into new concepts and conclusions. He compares the Internet with industrial management systems, tracing how they caused workers to complain that they felt like automata after the implementation of Taylorist management workflows. He compares this example with the modern example of Google, which places its computer engineers and designers into a systematized knowledge environment, creating robust insights and results at the expense of creativity. Additionally, Carr argues that the Internet makes its money mainly by exploiting users’ privacy or bombarding them with overstimulation, a vicious cycle where companies facilitate mindless browsing instead of rewarding sustained thinking.
Carr ends his essay by tracing the roots of the skeptic trend. He discusses events where people were wary about new technologies, including Socrates’s skepticism about the use of written language and a fifteenth-century Italian editor’s concern about the shift from manually written to printed works. All of these technologies indelibly changed human cognition, but also led to mind-opening innovations that endure today. Still, Carr concludes his argument on an ambivalent note, citing a quote by Richard Foreman that laments the erosion of educated and articulate people. Though Google and other knowledge-finding and knowledge-building technologies might speed up existing human computational processes, they might also foreclose the human potential to easily create new knowledge.
Personal Primer (digitale Fibel, fantastische Fibel u.s.w.) is a digital artefact aiming to enrich narrative, mathematical and musical intelligence of a Grundschule pupil. It instantiates 23 attributes divided into...
firstname.lastname@example.org has_bookmark of Medienhaus